On March 13, 2010, I attended a continuing education programme
"Canine Vector-Borne Diseases in Pet Practice - Focused on
Singapore" conducted by Dr Susanne Siebert. The contents were
mainly on diseases transmitted by ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and
sand flies. Heart worms and intestinal worms were discussed
For 4th & 5h year students, veterinary parasitology and
pharmacology can be very boring as there are so many names and
drugs and their efficacy, safety, ease of application,
treatment schedule and ability to only treat or treat and
prevent. How is the lecture relevant to the real world? I
hope the following summary of my comments on "Bayer
Parasite Solutions" may make their studies more enjoyable
and in case they get tested at oral examinations in their
1. Drontal Plus - One-dose dewormer
2. Advantix - Kills and repels. Not to be used in Cats.
3. Kiltix collars - Long-acting specialist against ticks
4. Bayticol - Anti-tick dogwash
5. Negasunt - Anti-maggots.
1. Drontal Plus (synergistic febantel and pyrantel
formulation with praziquantel). Broad spectrum against round,
hook, whip and tapeworms, nematode larvae and (when given
daily for 3 consecutive days) Giardia which is a
zoonosis. Safe in puppies, pregnant and nursing bitches.
Strategic deworming is 4x/year with one dose. It seems that
puppies as young as 2 weeks old can be dewormed. Note that
Giardia treatment needs 3 consecutive days instead of one
dose. Puppy can be given at 2 weeks of age and 2-weekly till
they are part of the strategic deworming 4X/year.
2. Advantix Spot On (synergistic imidacioprid 10% and
permethrin 50%). Kills fleas/larvae, ticks, mosquitoes, lice,
stable/biting flies. Repels ticks, mosquitoes, sand
flies, stable/biting flies. Repellency
(anti-feeding) means that the parasites do not bite or attach
to the body on contact with the dog. Explain this to the owner
who may see one or two ticks on the body after application.
Remove all ticks.
Safe in puppies over 7 weeks old, pregnant and nursing
NOT FOR CATS (imidacioprid is safe for use in cats but
it is permethrin that cannot be metabolised by cats.
Therefore Advantix is contra-indicated in cats). Ensure that
cats do not groom the dog's skin that have had been applied
Do not apply earlier than 1 day after bath and do not bathe
earlier than 2 days after application. This advice does not
seem practical for Singapore dog owners who usually bathe
their dogs more than 1X weekly). If Singapore's dogs are
usually bathed >1x/week, application of Advantix every 2
weeks instead of 4 weeks is needed.
Advantix is said to have acaricidal and repellent efficacy
against tick infestations (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes
ricinus for 4 weeks, and Dermacentor reticulatus for 3 weeks).
It kills fleas within 1 day following treatment and prevents
further flea infestations for 4 weeks and so can be used as
part of a Flea Allergy Dermatitis (FAD) treatment in dogs. But
it is NOT to be used for FAD in cats (due to the permethrin
component being toxic in cats).
Apply in 3 or more spots along the back of the dog. 5 spots
In heavily infested dogs, use Bayticol dog wash first,
apply Advantix and also treat the environment to prevent
reinfestation (vacuum, wash bedding, clean tiles, apply
Bayticol at 1 ml per 1.5 litres of water to tiled/concrete
areas, not grassy areas). Remove all ticks still attached to
the dogs after the use of Bayticol dog wash.
3. Kiltix collars
(2.25% flumethrin and 10% propoxur). Spectrum of activity is
6-7 months. Longest lasting tickicide. Works within 24 hours
reaching even remote parts of the body like the tail of the
dog. Flumethrin has some repellency efficacy. But not
comparable to Advantix's repellency. So, cannot claim that
ticks, if trying to attach to the treated dog, will die very
Does not lose its properties when it is wet. But take off
collar before bath or swimming frequently. Also, you cannot
use Advantix with collar as the collar will be affected. I
don't see much interest in Singapore compared to the spot-ons
like Frontline being available freely in the pet shop and
convenient to use. I may try Kiltix collars but
they are rarely available and so inconvenient for Singaporean
dog owners who are city dwellers.
4. Bayticol 6% emulsion. (flumethrin 6%). Used as dip,
spray, wash, environmental treatment. Efficacy against tick
(40ppm), flea, lice, mite (30ppm) and environmental control
inhibits oviposition (check label claims).
Residual efficacy: 7 days after application of 30 ppm, 3 ppm
are still present on the hair.
How do vets apply
Bayticol 6% emulsion? In heavily infested dogs, use this
onto dog to kill ticks first. Pull out all dead attached
ticks. Then give Advantix 24 hours later to dog as spot on for
5 spots. Goes home with Advantix to be given 2-weekly for 2
months. De-contaminate the environment.
In one example of 4 Siberian Huskies with heavy infestations
of ticks. I got the dog's coat clipped. Then I inject 1.0 ml
ivomectin SC. After 12 hours, I applied Frontline Plus spot
on. The dogs were sent home. However on Day 3, the owner
returned the dogs as they have "ticks". All ticks were still
attached to the body but they were dead. My assistants plucked
out the ticks. An anti-tick solution (e.g. Bayticol 6% or
Carrington Dog Wash) may be too risky for these dogs since
they have got ivomectin and Frontline Plus.
However, spot-ons should be applied 2-4 weekly. This may be
costly when the owner has 4 big dogs. There was a
reinfestation because the owner's workers had neglected to
apply the spot-ons or check the 4 dogs in his factory. The
pictures of the de-ticking of one Husky case are shown below:
Salivation: Obviously, if the dog licks the wash before
it is dry, the dog will salivate and the owner may not be
happy. Salivation will also occur even when the wash is dried,
as I have seen such cases. Owners are worried, although the
literature in "Promeris" - a competitor's spot on
product claims that there is no need to worry as the dog is
not poisoned but is showing "hyper salivation". In practice,
the vet or groomer has to care about the owner's worry after
application of the wash. One smart groomer advised me that she
gets the dog to wear an e-collar and she has no such problems
after tick wash with the Carrington Dog Wash (another
competitor). The amount used is 1 ml per 1.5 liters of water.
Check the label.
5. Negasunt powder (coumaphos, propoxuf,
sulfanilamide). Dust thinly on wounds cleaned from dirt, pus
and tissue debris. Maggots will crawl out.
Protects wound against bacterial infection and infestation
with fly larvae, kills flies and fly larvae (larvicidal,
repellent, anti-bacterial, adhesive, dying, deodorant, scar
tissue forming activities.
Indoor and outdoor dogs, use Drontal plus with Advantix,
Kiltix, Negasunt and Bayticol when necessary against all
Bayticol - Heavily infested dogs. Wash dog to remove
parasites. Then apply Advantix or Kiltix 24 hours later for
Advantix. Heavily infested dogs. Use Advantix and Kiltix 24
hours later. Next Advantix application should be 5 cm apart
from the Kiltix collar as the latter is affected. Negasunt.
Can be applied together with Kiltix if wounds are not too
close to collar. Same as for Advantix spot-on area.
IN TOA PAYOH VETS
DE-TICKING PROGRAM FOR HEAVILY INFESTED DOGS, we clip the
dog's coat, apply Bayticol 6% emulsion wash. Then 24 hours
later, we pluck out all ticks before sending the dog home with
spots-on to be applied every 3 weekly. We check the dogs for
Tick infested dogs can get sick with tick fever or other
diseases and some do die. Owners wanting to de-tick their
dogs, tel: 6254 3326, 9668-6469, e-mail